What are the Greenhouse Gases and How Do We Compare Them?

Bad news for all those that thought CO2 was the only thing you had to worry about. Good news for all you carbon dioxide fans out there! Your favourite greenhouse gas isn’t the only bad boy getting hot under the collar. In this article we are explaining warming potentials and why some gasses are worse than others.
First off an explanation for those who have been living under a rock. A greenhouse gas is a molecule floating through the atmosphere that has the potential to trap the heat from the sun which would otherwise have spread itself out into space.
Having a few of these gasses is essential for maintaining the lovely, habitable climate we have become accustomed to. The problem arises once someone (*cough* humans) causes much more to be present than there previously was.
The greenhouse effect then is an abnormal heating of the earth’s atmosphere due to excess reflective gasses preventing the energy from dissipating.

Who Is This Damn Greenhouse Gas Then?

“IT’S CARBON DIOXIDE” I hear you shout. Correct. And… not.
CO2 is only one of the gasses responsible for the global warming we are currently experiencing.
I think CO2 gets a bad rep because it is the main gas produced by the most visible sources of pollution around us*** – power stations, cars and factories just look dirty don’t they?
***(It is also the most common emission but due the the heating potential it may not be the most dangerous one…)
Well Carbon Dioxide has some mates – Nitrous Oxide, Methane and Fluorinated Gases…
“Thats cow farts!” – yes. And your farts too so don’t get all high and mighty.
It also has at least 28 times the warming potential as Carbon Dioxide but we will get on to that in a minute.
Methane is CH4 – a Carbon atom joined to four Hydrogen atoms.
The main molecule in Natural Gas  – learn more about Methane here.
The main contributor of methane in the UK is the animal agriculture business. There are 1.8 MILLION cows farting each and every day in the UK, pumping methane into the atmosphere.
“But they would be there anyway!” – would they really? No – go and adjust yourself. This is a man made issue.
Nitrous Oxide
Staying in the atmosphere for 114 years on average, nitrous oxide is released through farming, waste management and burning fuels.
Some Nitrous Oxide is present in the atmosphere and is essential for certain types of plants, forming the nitrogen cycle.
Fluorinated Gasses
Remember CFC’s which were destroying the ozone layer? Same group.
Some of the gasses in this group can be around for a matter of weeks, however some stick around for thousands of years.

Heating Potential

Not all greenhouse gasses were made equal.
Some are able to store much more of the Suns heat than CO2.
As a result, a common measure is needed so we can compare the different gasses on the same scale.
The heating potential of greenhouse gases is measured through a metric called Global Warming Potential.
This measures the energy absorption potential of 1 ton of gas compared to the absorption potential of 1 ton of Carbon Dioxide.
Now that bit about Methane (28 times greater GWP) makes sense right?
The GWP of each gas is down below:
100 Year GWP
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrous Oxide
Fluorinated Gasses
Up to 23,500 (Sulfur Hex-fluoride)
Now you know when you see that Methane is ‘only 10% of total emissions’ that it isn’t such an minor contributor to the greenhouse gas mix.

Average Lifetime

The other metric used to compare the different gasses is lifetime in the atmosphere.
Due to processes which use the gas and through the molecules breaking down at different rates, each has a different lifespan.
This is shown in the table below:
Lifetime in the Atmosphere
Carbon Dioxide
200 years
12.4 years
Nitrous Oxide
121 years
Fluorinated Gasses
Few weeks to thousands of years
Now you know what the greenhouses gasses are and how they are measured!
All data on lifetimes and global warming potential is from the International Panel on Climate Change:
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.

Salinity, Ocean Currents and Climate Change Markers

Salt is not just there to upset you while you mouth is open in the sea… Differences in salinity drive deep water currents moving hot and cold water across the globe. Find out why thats good for our understanding of climate change here:

What Effect Does Salt Have on the Ocean?

Salt affects ocean currents.
Wind directs the flow along the surface waters, however its effect is only able to penetrate the top few meters.
Combined with temperature differences, the salinity of the ocean is a key driver of deep ocean currents, which in turn are essential for regulating the climate.
Saltier, colder water is heavier than warmer, less salty water.
This difference in density creates a current as the water passes over, under and through – cold water to the bottom, hot water to the top.

What Can Affect Salt Concentration?

Areas where the predominant force in the water cycle is evaporation have higher salt levels. Salt does not evaporate with the water.
This reduces the amount of water for the same amount of salt.
Conversely, areas where precipitation is the driving force behind the water cycle have a lower concentration of salt.
Rivers and melting ice have the same affect as precipitation in this instance.
This is because water with little to no salt is constantly adding to the body of water, reducing the ration of salt to water.

Why is Salinity an Important Marker for Climate Change?

Currents in the ocean play a vital role in maintaining the Earth’s climate.
Changes to salinity levels will affect the high/low density locations in the ocean, which in turn will impact the water cycle.
A change to the water cycle will then impact the salinity levels and the process repeats.
We can therefore use changes in ocean salinity as a key marker measuring the effects of global warming.

NASA Aquarius Satellite

This satellite orbits earth at approximately 408 miles, with a complete rotation every seven days.
The satellite measures the salinity of the ocean as it changes daily, monthly and yearly.
Using this data in combination with in-water measurements NASA is creating a usable dataset to track changes to our climate.
Science.Nasa – Salinity

What are the Principles of Environmental Policy?

Environmental policies are regulations set down to guide public actions towards the environment.  In this article we will lay out the principles of environmental policy .

The Six Principles of Environmental Policy

    1. The Precautionary Principle

      This principle sets out that lack of scientific certainty will not be used to prevent the use of cost effective solutions in events with potential for serious or permanent damage.

      By having this as a guiding principle, groups who are opposed to implementing safety measures cannot use smoke screens to halt action.

    2. Best Available Techniques

      If you are a polluter/producer there are benchmarks set by the European Commission that determine what technology you need to use to combat emissions and protect the environment.

      If you have an alternative technology which you believe to be better, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted and sent in to be verified.

    3. Polluter Pays Principle

      This one is fairly self explanatory. Following this principle means that the entity responsible for the emissions are also responsible for bearing the cost of the damage. This could be in the form of taxed but more commonly the producer is responsible for safe disposal.

    4. Producer Responsibility

      Similar to the above principle, Producer Responsibility puts the disposal of a product in the hands of the company that manufactured it.

      This means there is a cost incentive for producers to make products out of reclaimable materials, keeping valuable resources in the cycle for longer.

    5. Lifecycle Thinking

      The materials in that sandwich you are munching have had a long journey to get into your hands. By taking a life-cycle approach to the manufacture of goods we can reduce harm at each stage of the process.

      This could be reducing the transportation distance by moving the different manufacturing plants closer together or by making the packaging out of materials that can be reused for another sandwich.

    6. Avoidance vs Mitigation

      Being proactive is a much better strategy than being reactive and trying to clean up a mess.

      This principle is similar to the Precautionary Principle in that it works to put protection in place before damage can be done.


I hope you enjoyed this article on the principles of environmental policy.

For more like this check out the rest of the site!




How to Kill The Plastic Packaging Monster

I’m sick of watching my food suffocate under too much plastic packaging. I also no longer want to pay to have it recycled when I know we could just not produce it in the first place. Here we look at whats happening with micro-beads and see if there are some lessons we can borrow.

The structure of this article is as follows:

  1. The Problem With Too Much Plastic Packaging
  2. Lessons from Micro-beads
  3. On the Shoulder’s of (Tiny?) Giants
  4. Applying this to Plastic Packaging
  5. Bonus: The Economic Sense of Less Packaging

The Problem With Too Much Plastic Packaging


Everyone knows that moment when recycling day comes around.

We look at the bags STUFFED with single use plastic and we think: “Hell yeah! I’m really good at this recycling thing. This is good waste right?”

But you can’t shake that nagging feeling that maybe everything isn’t all right.

Why is there this crazy amount of plastic wrapping on my food and products anyway? Surely they could have used half the amount or made it out of something that is going to take less than 100,000 years to break down?

Do you also ever think that you are PAYING to have it recycled when you pay your counsel tax?

Wouldn’t it be better to not create the waste in the first place rather than sort it out at the end?

Lessons From Micro-beads

You know those tiny balls in your cosmetics designed to scrape your face off? They are called micro-beads and are a gigantic pain in the ass from the moment you get soapy.

These beads are too small for the filters in the treatment plants and end up in the effluent that then gets pumped into our waterways once it’s been treated.

conservative estimate states that as much as 800 TRILLION of these plastic pieces are dumped  into the wild from the USA alone… 800 TRILLION. (Here)

They are so small they become bio-available to the marine life who confuse them for food, releasing toxins which harm the host and can build up to the point where they choke the the fish completely.

Bad. Bad. Triple Bad.

On the Shoulders of (Tiny?) Giants

So how does this relate to our problem of too much plastic packaging?

Due to the fact that micro-beads are too small to filter out of the ocean once they are in there, the new plan is to stop them getting into the water system in the first place.

How? By imposing bans and regulations on cosmetic producers. Some of the proposed bans are to stop the use of micro-beads in any cosmetic that is intended to end it’s life down your drain.

By heading up the supply chain instead of trying to orchestrate an impossible clean up operation we can stop the issue occurring at the source.

Applying this to Plastic Packaging

Instead of producing, consuming and disposing of a ridiculous amount of single use plastic packaging lets go to the source and change how things are done.

Why pay the council to sort and separate everything when we can prevent the waste being created in the first place.

PREVENTION rather than CURE is much better than a post-event clean up.

Lets learn from the victories of the anti-micro-bead campaign and apply it to all other areas of waste in our lives instead of blindly accepting things as if they are meant to be.

Bonus: The Economic Sense of Less Packaging


As you reduce the quantity of raw materials needed to produce each product, your variable costs will fall.

Unnecessary packaging is EATING into your bottom line. Cut the plastic and free your produce.

Notice the bold above… no one is saying ALL packaging is bad. There are practical decisions to make.

Take a cucumber for instance… According to INCPEN (Industry Council for Research on Packing and the Environment) without packaging a cucumber will loose too much water to be in a fit condition for sale within three days.

However, just 1.5g worth of plastic wrap is enough to keep that cucumber good to go for up to TWO WEEKS.

The 200% Positive Footprint

I was sat in an Environmental Management class, hearing about standards such as ISO 14001 etc when a girl asked the question:

“Are these a legal requirement?”

The speaker answered that no, these were not a legal requirement.

That got me thinking…


Why is it not already a legal requirement for a business to look after it’s environment the same way it is required to look after it’s employees? By damaging the world around it, a business is responsible for causing harm to it’s employees. They too share the same space that is being shat all over by the company that they work with.

We KNOW climate change and global warming are happening and we KNOW how bad it could get. So whats up with the INaction of GOVERNING BODIES whose SOLE reason for being is to look after the citizens they govern? Why are the people that say they have my best interests at heart not stopping SHITONTHEWORLD INC. from shitting on the world I love so much?

I have no faith in my government.


The 200% Positive Footprint

Heres an idea. Instead of relying on the enforcement of environmental standards and the limp handshake that is government getting their shit together, lets take an individual, MORAL stance to improve the footprint each of us makes. WHAT IF instead of attempting to get 100% sustainable and 100% no impact we up the stakes and go for 200% POSITIVE impact? Not only are you and I removing the negative impact of ourselves, but we are IMPROVING the areas around us.

Now instead of needing 100% of the population (businesses included) to reduce their impact to ZERO, we only need 50% of the population to be ABSOLUTE HEROS.

Who wouldn’t want to live in a world where everyone was trying to create positive change thats twice the size of their impact?




Swansea Bike Scheme – Bikes4Swansea

The bikes4Swansea team are in a race to win a £100,000 investment from Santander. How? By raising more money than the competition. The crowdfunding  closes December 8th 2017!

What are their goals?

  1. Win £100,000 investment by raising the most money. (Pledge HERE)
  2. Put 50 bikes in Swansea split between 5 locations.

Why is bikes4Swansea important?

Cars are one of the biggest emitters of green house gasses. Less people in cars and more people on bikes is a great way to reduce the impact. On top of that, cycling is one of the best ways to stay fit and healthy. It’s a win-win.

Where will the docking stations be?

Where can you pledge?

Visit the crowd funding page here:






The Problem with Solar and Wind Energy

Touted as the next big thing for energy, solar and wind are given exalted status – first in the news and now in our minds. But lets have a look at some of the issues and make sure they are as good as we think they are…


I live in Wales so I can tell you first hand that it’s not always peak conditions for solar power… I can’t tell you the same about the wind however because those turbines look like they are always turning. APPARENTLY the wind isn’t always trying to knock people over in other parts of the world…

So whats the problem with these sources being intermittent? Our demand is constant. Unfortunately, we don’t desire power only when the sun is shining or the wind is blowing. Luckily in the year 1800 our mate Alessandro Volta improved on his mate’s electric frog idea and invented the voltaic pile. This was the first ‘true’ battery. Other chemicals such as lithium have been added in the 20th century and we now have batteries in every portable electronic device. Cheers Alessandro.

What does this mean for renewable energy? Because we can now store power through batteries, if you get enough of them (or perhaps just one big enough) you can store the energy generated on the sunny/windy days for when you need it. Now your problem is a centralized infrastructure which has to store the power for millions of homes. If everyone generated their own power then each household could cater for their own storage needs, but that’s a topic for another post.


A big argument people have against renewable energy is how expensive personal systems are. New technology is always expensive at the first stage of the cycle. Furthermore, with countries like China investing huge amounts into the renewable markets, capacity will shoot up and innovations will come think and fast. As demand increases so will the supply, creating equilibrium in the price. “For the second year in a row, renewable energy accounted for more than half the new power generation capacity added worldwide.” (FT, 2017)


This is one that I hear regularly and it always astounds me. Talking to an academic about the turbines on the hills near where I live he said “Bloody nuisance, can’t get away from the things.” I could’t believe it – when I see a wind turbine it fills me with hope that we are progressing towards a green society that doesn’t smash our surroundings to pieces. I also think the way they smoothly rotate is mesmerizing. I could be biased because I write for a blog like this but i’ll let you decide for yourselves. Take a look at the two pictures below and tell me which one you would rather see.

Big ugly concrete cooling towers.
Cooling towers. Big. Concrete. Ugly. Would you prefer this or a wind turbine?
Wind turbines. Ugly or therapeutic?
Wind turbines. Ugly or therapeutic?

Wind Turbine Noise Pollution.

This one relates directly to wind farms. I love turbines but this is something that needs to be addressed. A couple of lines from an article in the telegraph sums up the issue:

“This is not about saying no wind farms anywhere, this is about saying lets have wind farms in the right place with the right regulations,” she said. [‘She’ is Jane Davis, a resident affected by the noise.]

Dick Bowdler, an acoustic consultant, used to advise the Government on wind farm noise. However he resigned because he felt concerns about noise from wind farms were not being followed up.

“I have no doubt that there are some people who are seriously affected by wind farm noise,” he said. (Find the full article here)

Jane’s Case.

First lets examine Jane’s case. You have lived somewhere for years then they build a wind farm within earshot of your house. Endless wooshing is now the soundtrack to your life. I have lived next to motorways and under the Heathrow flight-path. I can tell you, not nice. Sure you can get used to it slightly but that feels more like your body trying to keep you sane.

Right thing, wrong place. What Jane said about having wind farms in the right place is great. Here in England we are an island. How about more offshore wind farms? Out at sea the regulations allow for bigger turbines too, so more power can be generated from one unit. {An offshore wind farm generates it’s own set of issues such as construction and energy transfer.}

Bad regulation. 

The acoustic consultant leaving or not is arbitrary. What we have to be careful of is the proper integration of new technologies. We need people to be on the team when it comes to climate change and one way to guarantee the opposite is to badly manage the transition. Noise complaints are an opportunity for great publicity. Who wouldn’t want to see the big corporation (with their planet-muncher reputation) helping the little guy?


Here’s a summary:

This post talks about wind and solar energy and although there are other forms out there that are making waves (tidal energy pun) solar and wind are at the forefront right now.

  • Intermittent – more storage is needed.
  • Expensive – the price is coming down.
  • Unsightly – better than chimneys.
  • Noisy – better management could eradicate this.
Check out THIS post on Sea-level rise.
Or THIS post on vertical farming.


Sea Level Rise

What is it?

Sea level rise is an increase in the global average volume of sea water. While water in a container will level itself, the ocean will not increase evenly across the globe. Some areas will be more affected than others – the East Coast of the USA is predicted to be “…particularly vulnerable to near-future sea-level rise from present-day high greenhouse gas emission rates” (Krasting et al, 2016)

How is it Measured?

Two methods are used to measure sea level rise over time.

Stationary tide gauges on beaches and in ports all over the world measure the high and low tide levels at each stage of the cycle and compare it to a benchmark. In this way we can measure the change over time.

The other method is a laser system applied by satellites as they orbit the earth which measures the surface level of the ocean.

What Causes it?
Thermal Expansion

As water warms it expands. This is because the increased heat energy causes the atoms to move around faster and faster. As the global average temperature increases, so does the temperature of the oceans.

Melting Sheet Ice

Another consequence of increased temperatures is the melting of our ice sheets and glaciers. As these melt, water which has been stored as ice for many years floods into the ocean. Why are ice sheets important? The National Snow and Ice Data Center’s (NSIDC) website states that if Greenland’s ice sheet were to melt sea levels would rise 6 meters. Scarier still, if the Antarctic ice sheet were to melt sea levels would rise 60 meters (200 FEET!).

Why is it bad?

Displacement. The single biggest problem with a rising sea level is the number of people that live in coastal areas. Unless you enjoy ankle deep water rising through your floorboards, beachfront living might not be the best investment for you too make. Unlucky for some, the majority of their net worth is already tied up in beach front property. First world problems…


Heres the thing. It’s not just a first world problem. MILLIONS of people in developing countries live along the coastline and have their entire livelihoods tied to one area. The biggest group affected will not be those that can afford to take the loss of property and move somewhere else but will be those that stand to loose what little they have during the migration inland.

What about island communities out to sea which are being swallowed by the rising tide? Arguably some of the least polluting group being affected the most. Doesn’t seem fair to me.

Do you know anyone affected by this issue? Leave a comment!


Krasting, J.P., Dunne, J.P., Stouffer, R.J. and Hallberg, R.W., 2016. Enhanced Atlantic sea-level rise relative to the Pacific under high carbon emission rates. Nature Geoscience9(3), pp.210-214.

Part 2: Are Hurricanes Becoming More Frequent?

Is climate change causing an increase in the power and frequency of these brutal tropical storms? Harvey and Irma are causing untold damage in the Caribbean as we reach the halfway mark for hurricane season in the atlantic. Is this the new norm?

*Side Note* This is part two of the hurricane series. If you haven’t already, view Part 1 HERE

First and Foremost

If warm moist air is the source of a hurricane’s power (See Part 1), a warming climate is going to increase the likely hood of a tropical storm gaining the destructive power of a category five hurricane.

Are WE making hurricanes more dangerous?

Moisture in the Air

As the temperature of the air rises it is able to hold more moisture. This could be up to 7% more moisture per 1 degree Celsius increase. This may not sound like much but when you think about the scale of a hurricane and the destructive power already locked, in adding more moisture to the mix isn’t a good idea.

When we release greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere, we increase the temperature. As the temperature increases the air holds more moisture. With more moisture in the air, hurricanes become more powerful.

The effect of greenhouse gas warmed environment on the intensity of a hurricane was modelled by Knutson and Tuleya (2004). In their study which modelled over 1000 simulations found that the increased temperature created more intense storms.

Urban Jungles

This is the second man-made influence making hurricanes more dangerous to humans which I would like to talk about.

Concrete. We love it. Mile after mile of our urban areas have been smoothed over and covered with the stuff. I’m a big fan of plants so I am bias but concrete has one major flaw when large amounts are put over an area. Drainage.

Green fields, soil and forests soak up rainwater where it falls, adding it to the water table. It then flows at a controlled rate through to streams and rivers until it reaches the sea. When rain falls on concrete the easy path to the water table is blocked. Concrete does not drain like soil so the water gathers and flows through drainage systems built to cope with  normal rain levels. This works until rain that is way beyond the normal level begins to fall.

During hurricanes such as Harvey, HUGE amounts of rainfall happen in a very short space of time, overwhelming the drainage capacity of the city. As the water starts to back up, sewage systems are also overwhelmed. Now peoples homes are filling up with a mixture of rainwater, street grime, storm surge and sewage. Nasty.


Untreated sewage flowing through the streets breeds disease. People already helpless are now under threat of contracting a fatal disease, putting the overstretched emergency services under even more pressure. Contaminated drinking water is a big risk for spreading diseases, especially in developing countries where access is even more limited after a natural disaster than in developed countries.


Green house gasses and concrete are two man-made factors making hurricanes more dangerous.

Next, are hurricanes becoming more frequent?

Are hurricanes becoming more frequent?

This graph found on the National Hurricane Centre’s website shows the number of tropical storms, hurricanes and major hurricanes each year since 1850!

This graph is taken from the National Hurricane Centre website. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/climo/

As can be seen from this graph, there is an upward trend in the frequency of named storms, hurricanes and major hurricanes. In the earlier years there may have been storms missed. This could be because recording and measuring equipment was not as developed as the ones we have today. However, adequate equipment has been available for many years now and we can see from the graph an upward trend from the 1970’s onwards. This period of increasing frequency is longer than the abnormal readings taken during periods of the El Niño phenomenon which occurs every 2 – 7 years with effects lasting up to a year in some places*.

Webster, Holland, Curry, Chang

I then read the paper by Webster, Holland, Curry and Chang who examined  the number of tropical cyclones and cyclone days as well as tropical cyclone intensity over the past 35 years… They came to this conclusion:

“We conclude that global data indicate a 30- year trend toward more frequent and intense hurricanes, corroborated by the results of the recent regional assessment (29). This trend is not inconsistent with recent climate model simulations that a doubling of CO2 may increase the frequency of the most intense cyclones…”

If you want to read the paper and make your own conclusions the link is is the sources section.

The other interesting part of this paper was the table named Table 1. I have included a screenshot of it here:

Data presented by P. J. Webster, G. J. Holland, J. A. Curry and H.-R. Chang. Original can be found here: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5742/1844.full

As you can see from the table, in EVERY SINGLE basin the number of hurricanes in categories 4 and 5 have increase.


There you have it. Not only are we making storms worse for ourselves with our liberal application of concrete but we are also seeing an INCREASE in the number and intensity of tropical storms as a result of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. It makes me wonder, are storms like Harvey and Irma the new norm? Finally, since we are still pumping our emissions into the atmosphere another question must now be asked: How much worse is it going to get?

Leave me a comment and tell me what you think!

Liked it?

If you enjoyed this and want to know more about how hurricanes are formed, check out Part 1 HERE.

Or if you fancy something different, check out THIS piece on Vertical Farming.


Sources USed

Emanuel, K. A. The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate. Nature 326, 483–-485 (1987)

Knutson, T.R. and Tuleya, R.E., 2004. Impact of CO2-induced warming on simulated hurricane intensity and precipitation: Sensitivity to the choice of climate model and convective parameterization. Journal of climate17(18), pp.3477-3495.

National Hurricane Centre Website

Webster, P.J., Holland, G.J., Curry, J.A. and Chang, H.R., 2005. Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment. Science309(5742), pp.1844-1846.

Part 1: Understanding Hurricanes

With Harvey and Irma battering anything in their path, a question has to be asked: are these brutal hurricanes becoming more frequent? Before we can answer this question however, we need to understand exactly what a hurricane is and what causes this destructive weather pattern.

This is Part 1 of the Hurricane series.

This article will explain:

  1. What is a hurricane?
  2. What are the causes?
  3. When does a tropical storm become a hurricane?
  4. What are the different sections of a hurricane?
  5. When is hurricane season?
  6. How is the scale of a hurricane measured?
  7. What causes the damage?
What is a hurricane?

Defined as a tropical storm with violent winds, a hurricane is the same weather system as a cyclone or a typhoon. The main difference between these three is their location. A typhoon occurs in the Northwest Pacific whereas a cyclone occurs in the South Pacific. A hurricane is a tropical storm in the Atlantic and North-East Pacific.

What are the causes?
Warm air from tropical waters causes thunderstorms by rising to high altitudes and creating an area of low pressure close the to the oceans surface. Air from the surrounding areas floods in to equalise the pressure difference. Due to the Earth’s rotation, cyclones south of the equator spin clockwise whereas cyclones north of the equator spin counter-clockwise! For an awesome explanation of why this happens, check out this answer on Quora.
When does a tropical storm become a hurricane?

According to the National Hurricane Centre, when the sustained windspeed reaches a certain threshold (above 73mph) a tropical storm becomes a hurricane. To then be classed as a major hurricane, the storm needs to have sustained windspeed of greater than 111mph.

What are the different elements of a hurricane?
A hurricane is made up of three sections: the eye, the eye wall and the spiral rain bands.
At the centre of the storm the eye is relatively calm. There is little to no rain and it is the warmest part of the storm.
The eye wall encircles the eye and has the strongest winds. It also contains the most rain. This is the strongest part of the storm and causes the most damage as it passes.
The spiral rain bands are on the edges of the storm, sometimes trailing inwards for hundreds of miles. These can still have strong, dangerous winds but are not as powerful as those in the eye wall.
When is hurricane season?

Hurricane season in the Atlantic stretches from June 1st until November the 30th, with the peak of the season being September 10th.

How is the scale of a hurricane measured?

To measure the intensity of a tropical storm, the  Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) is used. This sorts storms into 5 categories depending on wind speeds. Created by Herb Saffir and Bob Simpson, this tool has been widely used to predict the damage done to property by the various levels of hurricanes. For more detailed explanation of what damage can be expected from each category, have a look at the table on the National Hurricane Centre’s website.

What causes the damage?

The power and energy release by this massive weather system is hard to imagine. A force 5 hurricane such has sustained wind speeds of over 155 MPH, which can rip houses to shreds. Couple this with billions of gallons of rain that falls in a short space of time and our concrete jungles can quickly become overwhelmed. Damage is caused by flooding from rainwater as well as huge torrents of water coming off the ocean in a storm surge.

Damage is caused by:

  • High Winds
  • Intense Rainwater
  • Storm Surge
Thank you for taking the time to read this article. If you enjoyed this and want to read more, have a look at the related posts!

Worried about food security? Have a look at this post on vertical farming for something slightly different: HERE

Or alternatively, learn something odd about the yields from urban/ rural bees: HERE